the Chameleon
edition #5
December, 2003

In this edition:






Book Notices

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Dr Jennifer Hendriks Conducts Archival Research in Belgium and the Netherlands

Dr Jennifer Hendriks has recently returned from a productive trip to Belgium and the Netherlands where, over the course of five weeks, she visited over a dozen archives and took several thousand digital photographs of manuscripts from the 13th to 15th centuries. This research trip was funded by a Faculties Research Grant and enabled Dr Hendriks to collect data from archival sources which have never been previously transcribed or published and therefore have never figured into discussions of language change or the history of the Dutch language. The data collected will be used for a systematic study of deflexion in Dutch as well as in her continuing work as Research Associate as part of Dr Cynthia Allen’s ARC project on Possession in Germanic.

New Members and Affiliates

A warm welcome to our new CRLC Member for 2003!

Suzy Styles, School of Language Studies, Faculty of Arts, ANU
e-mail: (full member)

The complete CRLC Members list is here.


Change of Position

  • Congratulations go to Malcolm Ross whose promotion to Professor in the Department of Linguistics, Research School for Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, takes place from 1st January 2004.
  • Ghil'ad Zuckermann, D.Phil. (Oxford), was awarded a titular Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge on 13 December 2003. This year he has taken an intermission from his position at Cambridge and has been Visiting Professor at the University of Miami (Florida) and Senior Lecturer at the University of Haifa (Israel). Having published the cross-linguistic Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, he is scheduled to complete a book on The Genetics of the Israeli Language at the Research Centre for Linguistic Typology, Institute of Advanced Study, La Trobe University (Australia).
  • Søren Wichmann is also to be congratulated for his new position as Post-Doctoral Student, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthrolopology (Leipzig). Søren simultaneously retains a position as Associate Research Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of Copenhagen. During November 9-18 he was also a Visiting Professor at Departamento de Lingüistica y Literatura, Universidad de Hermosillo (Sonora, Mexico).
  • In June, Stephen Morey took up a two year postdoctoral fellowship at the Research Centre for Linguistic Typology, La Trobe University, to work on the Turung language of Assam, India. Turung (sometimes spelled Tairung or Tairong) has long been listed as an endangered Tai language. Following fieldwork in Assam in September to November, it is now clear that the Turungs speak a Tibeto-Burman language. According to the traditional account, the Turungs lived with the Singphos of Upper Assam and shifted to speaking Singpho. Singpho is similar to Jingpo/Jinghpaw as spoken in Burma and China—although due to instability in Upper Assam in October, he was unable to collect much data on the Singpho. Stephen has also been researching the song and poetry of the Tai Phake - a group who still speak Tai. The findings of this research were presented at the Texts and Orality Workshop at the International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics in Melbourne last week.
  • In July, Pascale Jacq took up a full time 2 year position as Linguist Research Assistant to Prof. Francesca Merlan, School of Anthropology and Archaeology, Arts, ANU. The project (funded by the Hans Rausing Endangered Language Project, SOAS) is to describe the Jawoyn language, of Arnhem land, northern Australia.

ISHL—CRLC involvement

Harold Koch has completed his term as a member of the Nominating Committee of the International Society for Historical Linguistics. His place on the committee will be taken by Malcolm Ross.

CRLC Committee changes

The CRLC Committee would like to thank Lawrence Warner (former Executive Director of the Australian Academy of the Humanities) for serving as Chair of the CRLC committee until recently. John Byron (new Executive Director of the Australian Academy of the Humanities) has kindly agreed to take over the position.

Thanks also go to Laura Daniliuc for serving as Graduate Student Representative on the Committee whilst completing her thesis. Evershed Amuzu has kindly agreed to take over the position.


Searching for cognates
Bethwyn Evans

Over recent months a recurring topic of discussion amongst some CRLC members around the ANU has been the notion of cognacy, and more specifically how to search for and establish cognate sets, how to organise and display cognates sets, and how to then use cognate sets to answer other questions of historical linguistics. This has led to the planned CRLC workshop in mid December: Finding, organising and displaying cognates. The reason for the interest in this notion is the number of research projects at ANU which rely explicitly on the search for and establishment of cognate sets, including Harold Koch, Patrick McConvell and Luisa Miceli’s work on Pama-Nyungan, Paul Sidwell and Pascale Jacq’s work on Mon-Khmer, and Andrew Pawley and Malcolm Ross’ Oceanic Lexicon Project.

A typical definition of a cognate is that given in Trask (2000:62):

“one of two or more words or morphemes which are directly descended from a single ancestral form in the single common ancestor of the languages in which the words or morphemes are found, with no borrowing”.

More broadly, as Trask (2000:62) notes, a cognate is also “one of two or more words which have a single common origin but one or more of which have been borrowed”. Thus Spanish jaula ‘cage’, Old French jaiole ‘jail’ and Occitan cayola ‘cage’ are all cognate as they are descended, without borrowing, from the unrecorded Latin form *caveola ‘small enclosed space’. More broadly English jail and Basque txabola ‘hut’ are also cognate with these forms, being descended from the same Latin form, but borrowed from Old French and Old Spanish, respectively (Trask 2000:62).

Many textbooks of historical linguistics provide the first, more narrow, definition of cognates and then move on to describing reconstruction using the comparative method. Yet surely cognates deserve more than a passing mention being central to so many tasks of historical linguistics. Without the notion of cognacy we would be unable to establish genetic relatedness amongst languages, reconstruct aspects of ancestral languages and culture history, or in many instances describe processes of language change.

If we look back to Meillet’s 1924 discussion of establishing “the existence of an ancient common language”, he states that “it is necessary to find in the languages compared the specific features of that language as far as they have been maintained” (Meillet 1967:36). That is, we need to find descendent features of the protolanguage in the attested languages, or in other words we need to find cognates, forms that are descended, without borrowing, from a common source. Meillet (1967:ch 3) describes the proofs of genetic relatedness that can be used within morphology, phonology and vocabulary and all rely on one notion; that aspects of the attested languages are cognate.

In morphology Meillet describes how it is not similarity in language type (inflectional or analytical) or in morphological processes (suffixing or prefixing), both of which are unreliable for establishing language relationships, but it is “particular processes of expression of the morphology” which can be used to establish genetic relationships, and “a language with an involved and complex morphology, containing a large number of specific facts, lends itself well to the proof of relationships” (Meillet 1967:39-40). The “more singular” or “anomalous” these facts the more conclusive the argument for language relationship.

In more contemporary writings Meillet’s singular facts of morphology have been interpreted as the crucial element of establishing language relationships. For example, Nichols (1996:41) writes that “an initial assumption of relatedness is made on the basis of solid evidence that firmly identifies a unique individual protolanguage” and this evidence needs to include “systems or subsystems with a good deal of internal paradigmaticity, ideally multiple paradigmaticity, and involving not only categories but particular shared markers for them” (Nichols 1996:48). Nichols (1996:50-52) presents the example of the Indo-European gender system; a system of noun classification involving three genders marked by agreement which intersect with a set of declensional classes. Taking into consideration the categories and the forms, the probability of multiple independent occurrence of such a system in less than one in a million. If such shared features are found amongst languages then an initial assumption of relatedness can be made on the basis that they are highly unlikely to be chance resemblance and more likely to be specific features maintained from a common ancestor language. That is, they are likely to be cognate.

In recent years such arguments have been presented as evidence for the Pama-Nyungan group of Australian languages. While many Australianists support the hypothesis that the languages of seven-eights of the continent form a genetic group (see for example, O’Grady, Voegelin and Voegelin, Blake 1988, Evans and McConvell 1998), others question whether enough evidence has been put forward for such a group to be considered well-established at this stage (Dixon 2001). Miceli (1999, forthcoming) suggests that the linguistic features shared by Pama-Nyungan languages do indeed appear to meet Nichols’ (1996) individual-identifying threshold, noting the similarities of the pronominal paradigms (cf. Blake 1988) and the specific allomorphy of the ergative and locative case markers, ngku or -lu and ngka or la, respectively. And Koch (2003, in press) presents further data showing similarities of pronominal paradigms and of particular verb stems plus inflectional affixes across a range of Pama-Nyungan languages.

But does the recognition of these shared features, unlikely to be chance resemblance, really establish their cognacy and therefore the genetic relatedness of the languages?

Looking further at Meillet’s work we see that he suggests the need of another type of proof, namely sound correspondences. Thus Meillet (1967:44-48) describes regular and recurrent correspondences of phonology amongst the attested languages as providing proof that the languages in question are genetically related. Vocabulary, on the other hand, Meillet (1967:48) claims is the most “unstable element of all language”, and that “valid etymological comparisons” are made “only according to rules of correspondences” (Meillet 1967:49). But how can phonological correspondences be established without some, at least tentative, assumptions of cognacy amongst lexical items across languages? So again without some notion of cognacy we cannot even begin to establish language relationships.

Harrison’s (2003) discussion of the comparative method and its limitations provides one of the clearest explanations of the way in which we need to prove the cognate with relation to establish genetic relatedness amongst languages. As Harrison (2003:217) points out two languages can, in principle, be genetically related and yet not share a single cognate, but our ability to demonstrate genetic relationship depends on our ability to prove that instances of the cognate with relation hold between the languages in question. So while genetic relationships amongst languages exist as a fact, our task is to demonstrate these relationships by identifying cognacy across languages. And rather than needing a method for proving genetic relationship we need a method for proving instances of the cognate with relation, and as Harrison (2003) argues so well, we have that in the comparative method.

Harrison (2003:218) provides the following rule for proving the cognacy of a potentially cognate pair:

A pair (f, g) of potential cognates is a cognate pair if:

  1. they meet the similarity condition: that f and g are similar in both facets of the sign relation, in form and in interpretation, and
  2. they meet the disjunctive elimination condition that the similarity is not (likely to be) a consequence of chance or borrowing/diffusion.

Using the comparative method and following this rule we have clear guidelines on the proof of cognacy. First we need to find linguistic features that are similar in both form and meaning and are thus potentially cognate. But where in the linguistic system do we search for potential cognates? Harrison (2003:216) shows how comparison across languages, using the comparative method, is restricted to the lexicophonological domain, where the form-meaning relationship is arbitrary and conventional, and therefore cross-linguistic similarity is unexpected and in need of some explanation. Thus we need to search for cognates amongst the form-meaning pairings of morphemes or strings of morphemes, either lexical or grammatical, where the form-meaning relation is not iconic.

But how similar must our potential cognates be for cognacy to be demonstrated? In the words of Meillet (1967:49) it is not similarities in phonological form which count, but similarities according to “rules of correspondences”. So rather than needing a measure of phonetic similarity and searching for forms which fit within such a measure, we need to look for recurrent correspondences of phonological segments across languages. And so the need for a theory of phonetic similarity is replaced by the assumption within the comparative method of the regularity of sound change (Harrison 2003:219-220). While there is now clearly enough evidence to show that sound change is not (or at least not always) regular (cf. Labov 1994), there is also evidence indicating that sound change tends, over time, towards regularity, resulting in recurrent, and mostly regular, sound correspondences amongst non-borrowed cognates.

Such regular correspondences help with the disjunctive elimination condition, ruling out chance similarity which is highly unlikely to be regular at all, and to some extent ruling out borrowing which is also unlikely to result in recurrent regular sound correspondences. In some instances borrowing can result in regular correspondence between languages, and then we need other means of determining which forms are narrowly cognate and which forms are borrowings.

Similarity in meaning is much harder to quantify. Phonology provides a closed system with a limited number of distinctive elements to compare. Meaning, on the other hand, involves an almost limitless number of senses. Recent work on semantic change indicates that there is regularity of change (cf. Wilkins 1996, Traugott and Dasher 2002), and studies of synchronic polysemy provide a way of constraining the range of meanings considered acceptable as potential cognates (cf. Evans and Wilkins 2001). But, semantic similarity among potential cognates still remains largely at the discretion of the linguist.

So instances of the cognate with relation can be demonstrated by the application of the comparative method within the lexicophonological domain. And this then must be the direction needed in studies of Pama-Nyungan as a genetic entity, as proposed by Harold Koch, Luisa Miceli and Patrick McConvell (personal communication). Papers in Bowern and Koch (forthcoming) present data showing systematic similarities amongst smaller groups of Australian languages. Alpher (forthcoming) examines Pama-Nyungan as a whole in this way, presenting for the first time phonological correspondences across Pama-Nyungan languages, and from this lexical reconstructions. The problem that Alpher is trying to correct is that vocabulary has not been used to a large extent as evidence for cognacy and therefore genetic relatedness amongst Australian languages. The rationale for this omission has apparently been the fact that lexical items tend to be either shared and almost identical in form or totally dissimilar, meaning that it is difficult to find recurrent and regular sound correspondences which can be used to distinguish non-borrowed cognates from borrowed ones. But without looking for sound correspondences do we have any way of proving cognacy and therefore establishing genetic relatedness?

Paul Sidwell and Pascale Jacq’s work on Mon-Khmer languages also involves the search for cognates within the lexicophonological domain with the aim of establishing sound correspondences across languages and carrying out phonological and lexical reconstruction. Further to the proof of genetic relatedness their work is using cognates and reconstruction to examine the closer relations within the family, that is, the subgrouping, and also to distinguish non-borrowed cognates from borrowed ones, therefore examining patterns of contact (cf. Sidwell 2000, Sidwell & Jacq (in press)).

The Oceanic Lexicon project is also primarily concerned with establishing cognate sets, but here the concern is not the genetic relatedness of the languages or the subgrouping within the family, but the reconstruction of culture history. The Oceanic language family of the Pacific is well-established; sound correspondences across languages have been described in a number of sources (see Ross, Pawley and Osmond 1998). Within this project the search for cognate sets is part of the task of lexical reconstruction. By proving that certain terms are instances of the cognate with relation we can establish that such terms were present in the protolanguage. From this the types of cultural items and concepts that were lexically-represented in the language of Proto Oceanic peoples can be determined. For example, the importance of the sea and seafaring amongst Proto Oceanic speaking communities can be seen in the lexical reconstructions for the seascape (Osmond 2003), types of meteorological phenomena (Ross 2003) and terms for canoes and canoe parts (Pawley and Pawley 1998).

The cognate with relation is central to endeavours of historical linguistics, it is the notion on which most other notions within the discipline are based. And yet, while it is a notion that is an implicit part of most studies of historical linguistics, it is rarely discussed and examined in detail. As we search for ways of describing linguistic history in more and more detail, we need to keep in the forefront of our minds the notions that form the basis of our discipline. In 1924 Meillet stated of historical linguists that:

“We must reflect on the methods employed, examine their legitimacy, and see how we might extend their use and make them flexible — without diminishing their rigor — in order to make them conform to the requirements of research in new domains.”

These words are as relevant and true today as they were 79 years ago, and our methods of demonstrating cognacy are certainly ones whose rigour cannot be diminished.

Alpher, Barry (forthcoming) ‘Pama-Nyungan: phonological reconstruction and status as a phylogenetic group’, in Claire Bowern and Harold Koch (eds), Australian languages: classification and the comparative method. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp: 106-142

Blake, Barry J. (1988) ‘Redefining Pama-Nyungan: towards the prehistory of Australian languages’ . Aboriginal Linguistics 1:1-90.

Bowern, Claire and Harold Koch (eds) (forthcoming) Australian languages: classification and the comparative method. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Dixon, R.M.W. 2001. ‘The Australian linguistic area’, in Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and R. M. W. Dixon (eds) Areal diffusion and genetic inheritance: problems in comparative linguistics. Melbourne & Oxford: Oxford University, pp. 64-104.

Evans, Nicholas and Patrick McConvell (1998) ‘The enigma of Pama-Nyungan expansion in Australia’, in Roger Blench and Matthew Spriggs (eds), Archaeology and language. Vol 2: Correlating archaeological and linguistic hypotheses. London: Routledge, pp. 174-192.

Evans, Nicholas and David Wilkins (2001) ‘The complete person: networking the physical and the social’, in Jane Simpson, David Nash, Mary Laughren, Peter Austin and Barry Alpher (eds.) Forty years on: Ken Hale and Australian languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, pp: 493-521.

Harrison, S. P. (2003) ‘On the limits of the Comparative Method’, in Brian D. Joseph and Richard D. Janda (eds.) The handbook of Historical Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp: 213-243.

Koch, Harold (in press) ‘The case for Pama-Nyungan: evidence from inflectional morphology’. Proceedings of 17th International Congress of Linguists, Prague, Czech Republic, July 24-29, 2003.

Koch, Harold (2003) ‘Towards the reconstruction of Pama-Nyungan verb inflection’, Paper presented in CRLC Histling seminar series, Canberra.

Labov, William (1994) Principles of linguistic change. Vol. 1: Internal factors. Cambridge, USA: Blackwell.

Meillet, Antoine. 1967 [1924]. The Comparative Method in historical linguistics. Paris: Librairie Honoré Champion

Miceli, Luisa 1999 ‘A fresh look at Australian languages and individual-identifying features’, Paper presented at Australian Linguistic Society Conference, Perth.

Miceli, Luisa (forthcoming) ‘Pama-Nyungan as a genetic entity’, in Claire Bowern and Harold Koch (eds) Australian languages: classification and the comparative method. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp: 67-75.

Nichols, Johanna (1996) ‘The comparative method as heuristic’, in Mark Durie and Malcolm Ross (eds.) The comparative method reviewed. Regularity and irregularity in language change. New York: Oxford University Press, pp: 39-71.

O’Grady, Geoffrey N, C F Voegelin, and F M Voegelin. (1966) ‘Languages of the world: Indo-Pacific fascicle 6’. Anthropological Linguistics 8(2):1-199.

Osmond, Meredith (2003) ‘The seascape’, in Malcolm Ross, Andrew Pawley and Meredith Osmond, The lexicon of Proto Oceanic. The culture and environment of ancestral Oceanic society. Vol. 2: The physical environment. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, pp: 87-113.

Pawley, Andrew and Medina Pawley (1998) ‘Canoes and seafaring’, in Malcolm Ross, Andrew Pawley and Meredith Osmond (eds.) The lexicon of Proto Oceanic. The culture and environment of ancestral Oceanic society. Vol. 1: Material culture. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, pp. 173-209.

Ross, Malcolm (2003) ‘Meteorological phenomena’, in Malcolm Ross, Andrew Pawley and Meredith Osmond, The lexicon of Proto Oceanic. The culture and environment of ancestral Oceanic society. Vol. 2: The physical environment. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, pp: 115-147.

Ross, Malcolm, Andrew Pawley and Meredith Osmond (eds.) (1998) The lexicon of Proto Oceanic. The culture and environment of ancestral Oceanic society. Vol. 1: Material culture. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Sidwell, Paul (2000) Proto South Bahnaric: a reconstruction of a Mon-Khmer language of Indo-China. Canberra, Pacific Linguistics.

Sidwell, Paul and Pascale Jacq (in press) A Handbook of Comparative Bahnaric: volume 1 – West Bahnaric. Canberra, Pacific Linguistics.

Trask, R.L. (2000) The dictionary of historical and comparative linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Traugott, Elizabeth Closs and Richard B. Dasher (2002) Regularity in semantic change. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.

Wilkins, David (1996) ‘Natural tendencies of semantic change and the search for cognates’, in Mark Durie and Malcolm Ross (eds.) The comparative method reviewed. Regularity and irregularity in language change. New York: Oxford University Press, pp: 264-304.

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Profile: Patrick McConvell

This is my fourth year in Canberra and I seem to be getting used to the place after many years in tropical Australia, mainly Darwin. This year I was reappointed for another three years as Research Fellow in Language and Society at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. I was also able to spend July and August as a visiting scientist at Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig.

MPI-EVA has a Linguistics section headed by Prof. Bernard Comrie to which I was attached. Malcolm Ross of ANU and CRLC was also visiting for part of the time I was there, and another ex-ANU scholar Lea Brown had just arrived back there from a period of field work. I continued some of the joint work on the languages of the Victoria River District in Australia with Eva Schultze-Berndt, whose work on Jaminjung complex verbs we have heard a lot about recently in Andy Pawley’s seminar talks. Eva and I have worked on different languages in the VRD and are particularly interested in language contact between them. Eva left Leipzig in August to take up a position at SOAS , University of London, in the teaching section associated with the Endangered Languages Project funded by the Rausing Foundation.

I gave a invited talk at Leipzig at the symposium on Loanwords which is part of the Institute’s Loanword Typology project. In my talk I emphasised the cultural and linguistic embeddedness of lexical items and advocated a wide approach to collecting lexical data as obscure lexical items and cultural connotations can often provide the key to wider puzzles in historical reconstruction. I also suggested that semantic change displays different patterns in borrowing than in inheritance.

MPI-EVA is a multidisciplinary body but linguistics plays a part not only in the Linguistics department but also in Psychology where there is a section working on Language Acquisition, and I attended their working group meetings. I am currently involved with a 4-year ARC project on acquisition of Aboriginal languages in several Central Australian communities, with Gillian Wigglesworth of Melbourne University, Jane Simpson of Sydney University, and four Ph.D students. Unlike in most language acquisition research the language spoken by the children is often quite different from that of older age groups and one of the aims is to analyse the kind of input the children get which leads to this changed output.

As I argued in my opinion piece for this site in an earlier newsletter, this kind of work both feeds into and gains ideas from linguistic prehistory. In this case we are seeing the genesis of creoles and mixed languages before our eyes and this can only assist us to assess the mechanisms of language change in earlier times. Clearly multidisciplinary prehistory would feature among the goals of MPI-EVA and there is a working group between Genetics and Linguistics also at the Institute. Unfortunately, there are no socio-cultural anthropologists or archaeologists on the staff or among the students at this time, as far as I know.

While in Europe, I gave a number of talks at conferences. The International Congress of Linguists at Prague had a session on Historical Linguistics convened by Lyle Campbell at which I talked on reconstructing Pama-Nyungan kinship terms (jointly authored with Barry Alpher). The International Congress of Historical Linguistics at Copenhagen had a session on Australia convened by Australian Bill McGregor, now of Aarhus University. I tried to present counter-arguments to a lot of the assumptions that grammatical resemblances between neighbouring distantly related languages are due to structural diffusion. After leaving Leipzig I gave a paper at the Diachronic Comparative Syntax conference at Leiden University and one at the LAGB conference in Oxford. Although my paper at Leiden (on shifting placement and loss of pronominal enclitics in Australia) stuck out like a sore thumb as being the only one on languages not attested in historical documents, I found the conference stimulating and a number of the participants seemed interested in my 'downward migration' hypothesis which I reinterpreted as types of raising.

My paper at Oxford (written with Nick Thieberger) was quite different – on the use of census and other survey data to assess current endangerment of languages in Australia. Again I felt a fish out of water – most of the papers at LAGB were on theoretical topics, mostly in the Minimalist or related frameworks. I am personally interested in these theories and used them for instance in the Leiden paper, but I can’t help thinking that LAGB has drifted too far away from real people speaking real languages and their situations. My talk was attended by a small band – interestingly mostly from China who have their own endangered languages, and Prof. Peter Austin, from the ELDP at SOAS.

On my return to Australia I gave a similar talk to the LAGB one, this time with Nick Thieberger present, at the Foundation for Endangered Languages meeting at Broome. This was a marvellous meeting with many Indigenous people in attendance and papers from many parts of Australia and the world. I was very pleased to meet Mary Jane Norris, an Indigenous Canadian who has done excellent work on Indigenous languages of Canada using census data This has inspired the work of Nick and me over the last few years on the report State of Indigenous Languages in Australia and related items.

Currently I am getting further involved with this kind of work, as AIATSIS is acting on my proposal to update the Indigenous Languages Database (ILDB) created by Nick Thieberger and me and put it on the web as a national resource and standard. This will be developed and piloted with the help of Melbourne University Computer Science and Doug Marmion of ANU in 2004. As noted elsewhere in this issue, the ILDB could be used as a standard languages list also for comparative databases.

I am also heavily involved in Native Title research in Queensland and the NT -anthropology rather than linguistics although I have a couple of publications appearing on historical linguistics and Native Title. I hope to return to my linguistic prehistory work as this applied anthropology work eases off, including the volume from the ARCLING II conference. I have been invited to give a talk [see abstract] on linguistic prehistory in a symposium on language ecology to celebrate the 100th birthday of Murray Emeneau, perhaps the ‘father’ of linguistic areal studies, at University of California, Berkeley in February 2004. Just last week I gave an invited talk on the application of the language ecology concept in a symposium of Language Shift at the University of Western Australia. The serendipity seems to be bringing me back to that uniting of the contemporary studies of shift and change with prehistoric spread and change – the core of CRLC’s business, as I see it.

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Forthcoming conferences, 2004

  • The 17th International Conference on Historical Linguistics will be held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, end of July 2005, organised by Joseph Salmons and Thomas Cravens.
  • The 18th International Conference on Historical Linguistics will be held in Christchurch, New Zealand in July of 2007, organised by Lyle Campbell of the University of Canterbury.
  • COOL6 Sixth International Conference on Oceanic Linguistics at the Emalus Campus, University of the South Pacific, Port Vila, Vanuatu, 4 - 9 July, 2004. The web address for the first circular is:

2003 Conference Reports

XVIth International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Copenhagen, 11th-15th of August 2003. This conference gathered the largest number ever of participants, of papers, and of languages studied. There were 370 participants from 35 countries and 5 continents. Out of a very large number of abstracts submitted and reviewed, 246 were accepted and 236 actually read. We had 15 thematic sections and between 7 and 9 parallel session each day.
[Excerpted from a circular sent by Lene Schøsler, Conference Director] See listing of papers presented by CRLC members below.

17th International Congress of Linguists, Prague, Czech Republic, July 24-29, 2003.
A session on Comparative Linguistics, organised by Lyle Campbell, attracted 37 papers on a great variety of languages and language families. The conference proceedings will be published in a CD-ROM at the end of 2003. See listing of papers presented by CRLC members below.

DIATYPE Symposium on diachrony, dialectology and typological linguistics held in Helsinki, October 16-18, 2003. This symposium was organised and hosted by the University of Helsinki’s Research Unit for Variation and Change in English ( Cynthia Allen attended and presented a paper ‘The Typology of Old English Possessives and Determiners’. Plenary papers were presented by Dieter Kastovsky: "Historical morphology from a typological point of view", Bernd Kortmann: "The European dimension of the new partnership between dialectology and typology", and Anna Siewierska: "On the development of non-accusative person agreement." The unifying theme of the symposium was ‘to explore connections between these three fields of research, looking for ways in which historical linguists and dialectologists could learn from insights to be gained from typological studies, and vice versa.’

Conference papers presented by CRLC members & affiliates

17th International Congress of Linguists, Prague, Czech Republic, July 24-29, 2003

  • Diller, Anthony and Wilaiwan Khanittanan. Bilingual mixing and diglossic differentiation: Thai and Khmer.
  • Koch, Harold. The case for Pama-Nyungan: evidence from inflectional morphology.
  • McConvell, Patrick and Barry Alpher. Reconstruction of the Proto-Pama-Nyungan kinship system in Australia.
  • Ross, Malcolm. Change and stasis in Oceanic possessive constructions.
  • Wichman, Søren. A summary of advances in Mayan comparative phonology.

16th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Copenhagen, 11-15 August 2003

  • Alpher, Barry. Proto-Pama-Nyungan consonant clusters and the problem of how many laminals there were.
  • Grant, Anthony. Linguistic engineering and its effects on diachronic depletion in ‘everyday’ languages.
  • Harris, Alice. Proto-Daghestan declension.
  • Kikusawa, Ritsuko. ‘Drift’ from ergative- to accusative-pattern clitic pronouns systems: a case in Oceanic languages.
  • Koch, Harold. Neogrammarian principles and the reconstruction of Australian verb inflection.
  • McConvell, Patrick. Questioning ‘structural diffusion’: understanding borrowing and inheritance in syntax.
  • McLagan, Helen. Placement of adnominal genitive phrases in Old English.
  • Miceli, Luisa. On the relatedness of Australian languages.
  • Ross, Malcolm. The history of Oceanic possessive constructions: formal change without semantic change.
  • Rumsey, Alan, with William McGregor. Classification and subclassification of the Worrorran languages.
  • Terrill, Angela. Punctuated Equilibrium in the Solomon Islands.
  • Tremblay, Mireille. A syntactic analysis of prefix entre- in Old French.
  • Tremblay, Mireille, with Fracois Rouget. Variation in 16th century French: a quantitative analysis of Rabelais’ style and aesthetics.
  • Wichman, Søren. A sociolinguistic theory of the evolution of writing systems.

Annual conference of the Australian Linguistics Society, Newcastle University, 26-28th September, 2003.

  • Harold Koch. Particles and proto-paradigms: Extending the catchment area for the reconstruction of pronominal inflection.
  • Bethwyn Evans. The value of "applied phonology" in morphological reconstruction.
  • Helen McLagan. Placement of adnominal genitive phrases in Old English.

DIATYPE Symposium on diachrony, dialectology and typological linguistics, Helsinki, October 16-18th, 2003.

  • Cynthia Allen. The Typology of Old English Possessives and Determiners. [abstract]

36th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, Melbourne (convened by David Bradley, LaTrobe University), 26-30th November, 2003.

  • Diller, Anthony. Text and orality in early Thai (Workshop on Text and Orality in Kam-Tai Languages, organised by Stephen Morey and David Holm, 27th Nov.)
  • Edmondson, Jerold. A comparison of Chinese and Vietnamese varieties of the Lachi language
  • Edmondson, Jerold and Li, Jinfang. Red Gelao, the most endangered form of the Gelao language (Workshop on Endangered Languages of China, organised by David Bradley, 26th Nov.)
  • Morey, Stephen. The Turung language of Assam
  • Morey, Stephen. Song poetry of Tais in Assam (Workshop on Text and Orality in Kam-Tai Languages, 27th Nov.)
  • Rose, Phil. The relationship between citation and running speech tones: some Cantonese data
  • Sidwell, Paul. The Mon-Khmer substrate in (Proto) Chamic as a Bahnaric language

CRLC Workshop on 'Finding, organising and displaying cognates'

Friday 12th and Friday 19th December, 11 am - 1pm
HC Coombs Building, Seminar Room C, Australian National University

In December the CRLC will be holding a workshop on finding, organising and displaying cognates. The workshop will comprise a number of "mini-papers" (about 10-15 minutes each) on issues connected with ways of searching for cognates, methods of organising and displaying cognates, and ways of using cognate sets to examine other issues of language change.

Friday 12th December

  • Patrick McConvell The web Indigenous Languages Database and how it could work with an etymological database
  • Paul Sidwell The Mon-Khmer comparative etymological database
  • Doug Marmion Collaborative knowledgeabase construction
  • Tamsin Donaldson Using 20th Century spoken Ngiyampaa to interpret an 1840 manuscript grammar of Wiradjuri

Friday 19th December

  • Patrick McConvell Searching for polysemy and semantic change across lexica
  • Andrew Pawley Strategies of doing semantic reconstruction: examples from the Oceanic Lexicon Project
  • Harold Koch Australian language cognates: in support of morphological reconstruction
  • Kate Laffan Displaying cognates using excel
  • Malcolm Ross Unsophisticated storage of Oceanic data

HistLing Seminar Series 2, 2003

The second HistLing Seminar Series for 2003 was held during Sept-November. The seminar titles and abstracts are given below:

5th Sept.: Bethwyn Evans (Department of Linguistics, RSPAS, ANU) “The value of applied phonology in morphological reconstruction” [Abstract]

12th Sept.: Harold Koch (School of Language Studies, ANU) “Particles and proto-paradigms: extending the catchment area for the reconstruction of pronominal inflection” [Abstract]

19th Sept.: Kate Laffan (School of Language Studies, ANU) “Getting to the core of the Proto Wakka-Kabic case system” [Abstract]

17th Oct.: Claire Bowern (Dept. Linguistics, Harvard University)“Devolution of noun incorporation” [Abstract]

A guest seminar for the 26 November was given by Anna Zalizniak A "Catalogue of Semantic Parallels": towards a Typology of Semantic Change [Abstract]

The next series is projected for first semester 2004.
Please contact the coordinator, Beth Evans <>
for details or to send seminar proposals

Visit to CRLC by Dr Anna Zalizniak

Dr Anna Zalizniak, a Senior Research Fellow in Russian and Comparative Linguistics at the Moscow Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and an eminent semanticist, visited the CRLC and the ANU School of Language Studies 25-26 November 2003. Dr Zalizniak presented a well-attended seminar ‘A "Catalogue of Semantic Parallels": towards a Typology of Semantic Change.’ We are grateful to the Australian Academy of the Humanities, who made Dr Zalizniak’s visit possible through their Visiting Scholars Programme—Former USSR.

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Theses submitted by CRLC members, ANU

Helen McLagan (School of Language Studies, Faculty of Arts, ANU) submitted her Master of Linguistics thesis in November, entitled The Syntax of Genitive Constructions in Old English: placement of genitive phrases in Ælfric's second series of Catholic Homilies. (Supervisor Cynthia Allen)

Kate Laffan (School of Language Studies, Faculty of Arts, ANU) submitted her BA(Hons): Reconstruction of the Wakka-Kabic languages of south-eastern Queensland. (Supervisor Harold Koch)

Laura Daniliuc (School of Language Studies, Faculty of Arts, ANU) submitted her PhD Thesis entitled: Auxiliary selection in the Romance languages. (Chair: Cynthia Allen)

2003 Courses run by Program in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics of the School for Language Studies, ANU

  • Language Change and Linguistic Reconstruction (LING2005/6005) was taught in first semester by Dr. Bethwyn Evans.
  • Study of a Language Family (Mon-Khmer) (LING3008/6508) was taught in second semester, by Dr. Paul Sidwell (see Lecture Series Notes)

Courses planned for 2004 by the Program in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, ANU

  • Language Change and Linguistic Reconstruction (LING2005/6005) to be taught in first semester by Dr. Harold Koch.
  • Languages in Contact (LING2018/6018) to be taught in first semester by Dr. Harold Koch.
  • Study of a Language Family (Austronesian) (LING3008/6508) in second semester will be coordinated by Dr. Bethwyn Evans.

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Publications by CRLC Members & Affiliates
(concerning language change/historical linguistics)

Allen, Cynthia. 2003.The Early English ‘his Genitives´ from a Germanic Perspective. In Collins, Peter and Mengistu Amberber (eds.) (2003) Proceedings of the 2002 Conference of the Australian Linguistics Society.

—. 2003. Deflexion and the development of the genitive in English. English Language and Linguistics 7.1 (2003). 1-28.

Bowern, Claire & Harold Koch (eds). in press. Australian languages: classification and the comparative method. [= Papers from the Workshop on Subgrouping and Reconstruction in Australian languages, 15 International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Melbourne, 16 August 2001]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Jennifer Hendriks. 2003. Agreement and Animacy in “Auxiliary Pronoun Possessives” in Middle and Early Modern Dutch. In Collins, Peter and Mengistu Amberber (eds.) (2003) Proceedings of the 2002 Conference of the Australian Linguistics Society.

Koch, Harold. 2003. Morphological reconstruction as an etymological method. In Blake, Barry J. and Kate Burridge (eds), Historical Linguistics 2001: Selected papers from the 15th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, 13-17 August 2001. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 271-291.

Lacadena, Alfonso and Søren Wichmann. in press. On the representation of the glottal stop in Maya writing. In: Wichmann, Søren (ed.), The Linguistics of Maya Writing. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

McConvell, Patrick. 2003. ‘Millers and mullers: the archaeolinguistic stratigraphy of seed-grinding in Central Australia’ In H.Andersen ed. Language contacts in prehistory:studies in stratigraphy, 177-200. Amsterdam: Benjamins (with M.Smith)

— . 2003. Review of J.Simpson et al eds. Forty Years on: Ken Hale and Australian languages. Oceanic Linguistics 42.1

— . 2003. 'Language data assessment at the national level: learning from the State of the Environment process in Australia' In J.Blythe & R.McKenna Brown eds. Maintaining the links: Language, Identity and the Land. 51-57. Bath:Federation of Endangered Languages. (with N.Thieberger).

— . in press. Headward migration: a Kimberley counter-example. In N.Evans (ed.) The Non-Pama-Nyungan languages of northern Australia: comparative studies of the continent’s most linguistically complex region. 75-92. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics .

— . in press. A Short Ride On A Time Machine: Linguistics, Culture History And Native Title. In S.Toussaint (ed.) Crossing Boundaries. Melbourne University Press.

— . in press. The grammaticalization of demonstratives as complementizers in Ngumpin-Yapa languages. In special number of Australian Journal of Linguistics. Ed. R. Nordlinger.

Senft, Gunter. 2003. Wosi Milamala - Weisen von Liebe und Tod auf den Trobriand Inseln. In Ireneusz Bobrowski (ed.). Anabasis - Prace Ofiarowane Professor Krystynie Pisarkowej. 289-295. Kraków: LEXIS.

— . 2003. Ethnographic Methods. In Werner Deutsch, Theo Hermann, Gert Rickheit, (eds.). Psycholinguistik - Ein internationales Handbuch Psycholinguistics - An International Handbook. 106-114. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Sidwell, Paul & Pascale Jacq. in press. A Handbook of Comparative Bahnaric, Vol. 1: West Bahnaric. Pacific Linguistics Series on Language Change.

Wichmann, Søren. 2002/2003. Georges Raynaud: An overlooked figure in the history of Maya epigraphy. The PARI Journal 3.2/3.3: 15-17.

— . 2003. Contextualizing proto-languages, homelands and distant genetic relationship: some reflections on the comparative method from a Mesoamerican perspective. In: Peter Bellwood and Colin Renfrew (eds.), Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis, pp. 321-29. McDonald Institute Monographs. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.

— . in press. The Linguistics of Maya Writing. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

— . in press. The linguistic epigraphy of Mayan writing: Recent advances and questions for future research. In: Wichmann, Søren (ed.), The Linguistics of Maya Writing.

— . in press. The grammar of the half-period glyph. In: Wichmann, Søren (ed.), The Linguistics of Maya Writing.

— . in press. The grammaticalization of a paradigm of auxiliaries in Texistepec Popoluca: A case study in diachronic adaptation. SKY Journal of Linguistics.

Wichmann, Søren and Cecil H. Brown. 2003. Contact among some Mayan languages: inferences from loanwords. Anthropological Linguistics 45.1: 57-93.

Zuckermann, Ghil'ad. 2003. Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. London, New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2003. See

— . 2003. 'Language Contact and Globalisation: The Camouflaged Influence of English on the Worlds Languages - with special attention to Israeli (sic) and Mandarin'. Cambridge Review of international Affairs 16.2, 287-307

— . 2003. 'Cultural Hybridity: Multisourced Neologization in Reinvented Languages and in Languages with Phono-Logographic Script'. Languages in Contrast 4.2.

— . in press. 'LEXICAL ENGINEERING as a Means for Judging Other Religions: A Socio-Philological Perspective' in Joshua A. Fishman and Tope Omoniyi (eds), Readings in the Sociology of Language and Religion, John Benjamins.

— . in press. 'Hebrew'. The New Companion to Modern Jewish Culture, Glenda Abramson (ed.), London: Routledge.

— . in press. Review Article of Yaacov Levy, Oxford Pocket Dictionary English-Hebrew / Hebrew-English. Jerusalem: Kernerman-Lonnie Kahn, 2002. Journal of Modern Jewish Studies 3:1.

— . in press. Review of Agnieszka Kuczkiewicz-Fras, Perso-Arabic Hybrids in Hindi: The Socio-Linguistic and Structural Analysis. New Delhi: Manohar, 2003. Yearbook of South-Asian Languages and Linguistics, Ranjendra Singh (ed.), Mouton de Gruyter.

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Book Notices

Continuing the new feature of this Newsletter, Members and Associates are invited to submit one-paragraph book notes to bring to the attention of colleagues recently published books relevant to language change.

Mufwene, Salikoko S. 2001. The ecology of language evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

In this book we find revised versions of several papers and essays by Salikoko Mufwene preceded by an introductory chapter that clarifies many of the concepts and terms used by the author and also summarises some of his most important arguments. Among the concepts defined we find the very three that appear in the title: ‘language’, ‘ecology’ and ‘evolution’. A ‘language’, traditionally likened to an ‘organism’, is here defined as a ‘species’. Languages or species in turn consist of I-languages or idiolects – i.e., a communal language is an ensemble of I-languages. This perspective enables Mufwene to explain language change as resulting from the competition-and-selection dynamics of co-existing I-languages – variation motivates change. ‘Ecology’ is then what determines which of the variables in competition are selected within a language or species, or between languages/species: the same language in different habitats will evolve differently as restructuring will not necessarily involve identical variables. And indeed the same language may thrive in one habitat while it is dying in another due to the fact that it is in competition with different languages. From this theoretical position Mufwene covers topics such as creole genesis (chapter 2) and the status of various non-standard varieties of English (chapters 3 and 4), genetic linguistics (chapter 5) and language endangerment (chapter 8). It is extremely refreshing to view all of this from a different viewpoint as it makes one realise that many of the metaphors and theoretical models we use, the distinctions that we make – although they serve us well – are mostly just ‘tradition’. And tradition needs to be challenged from time to time.[Luisa Miceli]

Blake, Barry J. and Kate Burridge. 2003. Historical Linguistics 2001. Selected papers from the 15th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Melbourne 13-17 August 2001. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

This volume, like many conference proceedings, includes papers covering a wide range of languages and topics, from language contact in the Amazon (Aikhenvald) to isomorphism in Afrikaans (Conradie), and from the principles of vowel shifts (Chun-fat) to the concepts of grammaticalisation and degrammaticalisation (Heine). Many of the papers examine specific changes in a particular language or small group of languages. Dench, for example, examines the verbal suffix -(l)ku in two languages of the Pilbara region of Australia, describing in detail the functional shift from purposive to present tense. And papers by Jensen, Manoliu and Pekkarinen describe specific changes in the history of Danish, Romanian and Finnish, respectively. Such papers are, undoubtedly, of most interest to others working on the same or closely related languages, but they also provide clear descriptions and explanations that add to knowledge of language change. Other papers use specific changes within particular language families to make more general claims about models of language change and methods of reconstruction. K. Schulte, describing the development of prepositional complementisers in Romance languages, demonstrates the importance of pragmatics in explaining syntactic change. Riemer, taking the English verb ‘to strike’ as an example, demonstrates the application of a typology of meaning change that incorporates metonymy and metaphor, and Aikhenvald presents two models of contact-induced change using language contact situations in the Amazon. Koch uses data from the Arandic languages of Australia to highlight the use of etymological methods in morphological reconstruction, and Kikusawa develops a method of describing morphosyntactic change to clarify changes to the pronominal paradigms of a number of Indonesian languages. Papers by Campbell, critiquing methods that try to go beyond the comparative method, and by Joseph and Janda, on models of sound change, highlight issues that are central to historical linguistics; reconstruction and language change. With papers ranging from very specific to more general, this volume brings together many different ideas on and approaches to historical linguistics, providing a snapshot of the state of the discipline in 2001. [Bethwyn Evans]

Traugott, Elizabeth Closs and Richard B. Dasher. 2002. Regularity in semantic change. (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Here, finally, is a book that gives a comprehensive account of semantic change within a framework that takes seriously the pragmatics of speaker-hearer interaction within actual discourse contexts. The authors argue for an Invited Inference Theory of Semantic Change. They explore recurrent changes of a prevailingly unidirectional nature that are documented from a wide range of languages, but in most detail from the history of English, Japanese, and Chinese. The main topics explored with chapter-length studies are the development of: modal verbs, discourse markers out of adverbials, performative verbs and constructions, and social deictics. The results of these studies in semantic-pragmatic-discourse change can be expected to prove as useful for the study of semantic change and reconstruction as the accumulation of patterns of grammaticalisation do for the historical study of syntax and morphology. [Harold Koch]

Nicholas Evans (editor). in press. The Non-Pama-Nyungan languages of northern Australia: Comparative studies of the continent's most linguistically complex region. Pacific Linguistics Series.

Publisher's blurb: The present volume brings together detailed comparative work on a number of non-Pama-Nyungan languages of Northern Australia, and is the first book-length study to span this linguistically complex region, containing as it does perhaps 90% of Australia's linguo-genetic diversity in an eighth of its land area. Many papers originated at a workshop held at the 1989 Australian Linguistics Society conference at Monash University, but several have been written specially for this volume. It has been said that no language changes faster than a proto-language, and in the intervening period a great deal of new descriptive data on non-Pama-Nyungan languages has accumulated, as well as careful sifting of complex data, which has led many of the authors to completely revise or develop their arguments since the original workshop. Hence, the delay in the appearance of the volume reflects some major shifts in position on the part of some authors.

The introduction the main issues in comparative non-Pama-Nyungan studies, and forms a state-of-the-art survey of the classification of non-Pama-Nyungan languages, which have undergone substantial changes over recent decades. It also consider the main issues in their subgrouping, and their relation to the Pama-Nyungan languages. The second to fourth sections then looks at issues of subgrouping, reconstruction and areal influence that pertain to particular non-Pama-Nyungan families or subregions. The final sections returns to the issue of whether one can carry the process of reconstruction back to deeper levels than the families themselves, that is back to some level from which all or most non-Pama-Nyungan families are descended. Overall, the volume illustrates that - despite recent claims by some authors - the comparative method can be successfully applied to Australian languages. It also furnishes a number of detailed and intricate studies of morphological reconstruction applied to complex paradigms.

ISBN 0 85883 538 X
Aust $99.00 International $90.00


Malcolm Ross, Andrew Pawley and Meredith Osmond. 2003. The lexicon of Proto Oceanic: The culture and environment of ancestral Oceanic society. Vol. 2: The physical environment. Pacific Linguistics Series No.545.

Publisher's blurb: This is the second in a series of five volumes on the lexicon of Proto Oceanic, the ancestor of the Oceanic branch of the Austronesian language family. Each volume deals with a particular domain of culture and/or environment and consists of a collection of essays each of which presents and comments on lexical reconstructions of a particular semantic field within that domain.
Volume 2 examines how Proto Oceanic speakers described their geophysical environment. An introductory chapter discusses linguistic and archaeological evidence that locates the Proto Oceanic language community in the Bismarck Archipelago in the late 2nd millennium BC. The next three chapters investigate terms used to denote inland, coastal, reef and open sea environments, and meteorological phenomena. A further chapter examines the lexicon for features of the heavens and navigational techniques associated with the stars. How Proto Oceanic speakers talked about their environment is also described in three further chapters which treat property terms for describing inanimate objects, locational and directional terms, and terms related to the expression of time.

2003 ISBN 0 85883 536 3 xviii + 387 pp
Aust $88.00 International $80.00

Bethwyn Evans. 2003.A study of valency-changing devices in Proto Oceanic. Pacific Linguistics Series Studies in Language Change. No 539.

Publisher's blurb: Characteristic of many of the Oceanic languages of the Pacific is the presence of several valency-changing devices. This work is an historical study of three valency-increasing and two valency-decreasing morphemes, presenting descriptions of their reflexes in a number of modern Oceanic languages and a detailed reconstruction of their forms and functions in the ancestor language, Proto Oceanic. The reconstructions of valency-changing devices is presented within of an analysis of morphosyntactic classes of verbs, both in the modern languages and in Proto Oceanic.

Pacific Linguistics in association with Centre for Research on Language Change
2003 ISBN 0 85883 487 1 xix + 352 pp
AUS $79.20 International $72.00

CRLC Advisory and Management Committee

Chair of Management Committee: Mr. John Byron, Executive Director, Australian Academy of the Humanities

Director: Dr. Cynthia Allen, FAHA, School of Language Studies, Faculty of Arts, ANU. e-mail:

Associate Directors:

  • Dr. Malcolm Ross, FAHA, Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, ANU
  • Associate Professor Ann Kumar, FAHA, Centre for Asian History, Faculty of Asian Studies, ANU

Other Management Committee members:

  • Dr. Harold Koch, School of Language Studies, Faculty of Arts, ANU
  • Mr. Evershed Amuzu, School of Language Studies, Faculty of Arts, ANU (Graduate Student Representative)
  • Dr. Michael Smith, Director of Research, National Museum of Australia

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[News] [Editorial] [People] [Events] [Education] [Book notices] [Committee][Webpage]

This newsletter edition was edited by Cynthia Allen, Harold Koch, Bethwyn Evans, Pascale Jacq
and compiled by the Administrator Pascale Jacq <>
Thanks go to the contributors whose names appear within the newsletter
This document was last modified: 2nd December, 2003
Copyright 2003 by the Centre for Research on Language Change, ANU